Questions of ownership, mission, curricula, and control led to the creation of professional and denominational institutions
as a counter to classical institutions.
- Classical institutions - embraced higher entrance requirements and Latin and Greek languages since they promoted mental
discipline and cultural superiority
- Professional - many created by classical institutions but ran independently and focused more on specific fields/professions
- Litchfield Law school in Connecticut most vigorous in this period
- University of Pennsylvania Medical School
- Denominational - primarily religious schools and seminaries that focused on modern languages and philology
The Dartmouth College Case of 1819 stated that New Hampshire legislature could not modify the school charter without a
just reason. It protected colleges from state interference, addressed ownership of institutions, and eastern provincial
colleges became fully private.