The First Morrill Land Grant of 1862 donated public land to create state institutions that promote agriculture and science.
Though many science and agricultural schools existed before this time, it did pave the way for the increased creation of such
institutions. It promoted liberal education to industrial classes. Two examples of these colleges are Cornell
(1868) and Purdue
(1869). E. Cornell and J. Purdue were the primary benefactors of the institutions that took their names.
The Second Morrill Land Grant of 1890 gave federal funding to state institutions. Part of the funding was to create
black institutions, which led to the creation of 17 historically black colleges or universities (HCBUs). Some examples
of the colleges founded by Second Morrill Land Grant are:
As the United States expanded west, more colleges were created. Philanthropy supplemented financial gaps in new and
existing higher education institutions. M. Vassar, H. .Well, S. Smith, and H. Durant created womens colleges between
1861 and 1875. Stevens Institute of Technology and Johns Hopkins were established by trustees' estates.
Charles Eliot, who sought to change the status quo of higher education, became the president of Harvard in 1869. He replaced recitations and classical curricula with an elective system and also created the College of Arts
and Sciences. He also developed what would later become the tenure system. He appointed learned faculty to teach
while supporting their research and development.